Two things have been artificially sustaining the market, says Chris McCarty, director of the University of Florida Bureau of Economic and Business Research, the Federal Reserve’s infusion of cash to lift the country out of the last recession and the 2018 tax cut. Both actions put a lot of money back into the economy. The Fed is starting to raise interest rates, he says, and the tax cut boost is temporary.  
The Property Appraiser of DeSoto County, Florida is charged with placing a fair and equitable market value on every parcel of property both real estate and tangible in our county. Many people believe the Property Appraiser determines the amount of taxes a property owner will pay but this is not the case. The job of property appraiser is to value property for tax purposes; the taxing authorities (Board of County Commissioners, School Board, City Council, Water Management) set the tax rate for all property and therefore the amount of taxes to be assessed.
Just released numbers from VISIT FLORIDA indicate another banner year for tourism. Some 65.5 million visitors graced the Sunshine State in the first six months. That’s more than in any six month period in the state’s history, and a nearly 6% increase over last year. Certainly a strong start to the year, but what impact will the red tide on the west coast have? Or will a hurricane damage the momentum? Good news for sure, but we must continue to diversify Florida’s jobs and make sure that the state is not only a fun place to visit.  
I want to take a moment to tell you of a most amazing experience I had at your office today. Deanne Holder waited on me and my daughter, Kelley DiSalvo, as we were trying to make heads or tails of some small pieces of property that belonged to my deceased husband, John Pat Krause, and me. Some of the lots were in low land and one piece of property didn't even have an address, except the address of the next door neighbor. Deanne very, very patiently looked up each and every parcel and helped us see the adjoining property owners so we can contact them, where needed, and also take the necessary steps to finally dispose of the remaining lots. I can see that Deanne is a treasure to your office and the citizens of Leon County.
The appraiser has to think about the way that most buyers usually buy a given type of property. What appraisal method do most buyers use for the type of property being valued? This generally guides the appraiser's thinking on the best valuation method, in conjunction with the available data. For instance, appraisals of properties that are typically purchased by investors (e.g., skyscrapers, office buildings) may give greater weight to the Income Approach. Buyers interested in purchasing single family residential property would rather compare price, in this case, the Sales Comparison Approach (market analysis approach) would be more applicable. The third and final approach to value is the Cost Approach to value. The Cost Approach to value is most useful in determining insurable value, and cost to construct a new structure or building.

The income capitalization Approach (often referred to simply as the "income approach") is used to value commercial and investment properties. Because it is intended to directly reflect or model the expectations and behaviors of typical market participants, this approach is generally considered the most applicable valuation technique for income-producing properties, where sufficient market data exists.
Phil Ammann is a St. Petersburg-based journalist and blogger. With more than three decades of writing, editing and management experience, Phil produced material for both print and online, in addition to founding HRNewsDaily.com. His broad range includes covering news, local government and culture reviews for Patch.com, technical articles and profiles for BetterRVing Magazine and advice columns for a metaphysical website, among others. Phil has served as a contributor and production manager for SaintPetersBlog since 2013. He lives in St. Pete with his wife, visual artist Margaret Juul and can be reached at phil@floridapolitics.com and on Twitter @PhilAmmann.
In a commercial income-producing property this approach capitalizes an income stream into a value indication. This can be done using revenue multipliers or capitalization rates applied to a Net Operating Income (NOI). Usually, an NOI has been stabilized so as not to place too much weight on a very recent event. An example of this is an unleased building which, technically, has no NOI. A stabilized NOI would assume that the building is leased at a normal rate, and to usual occupancy levels. The Net Operating Income (NOI) is gross potential income (GPI), less vacancy and collection loss (= Effective Gross Income) less operating expenses (but excluding debt service, income taxes, and/or depreciation charges applied by accountants).

Congratulations to Rick Singh, CFA, and the Office of the Orange County Property Appraiser for this week's recognition by the International Association of Assessing Officers (IAAO)! We received the Certificate of Excellence in Assessment Administration for "demonstrating the highest levels of managerial excellence and consistent utilization of practices that exceed the guidelines ... in property assessment administration practices." Shown in the photo (L-R) are Jeff Miller, Terry Taylor, Roger Ross, Tatsiana Sokalava, Rick Singh, Ron Sullivan, and Fred Hill.  


But the most common reason for value differing from price is that either the buyer or the seller is uninformed as to what a property's market value is but nevertheless agrees on a contract at a certain price which is either too expensive or too cheap. This is unfortunate for one of the two parties. It is the obligation of a real property appraiser to estimate the true market value of a property and not its market price.
In order to become a Licensed Residential Appraiser, and earn the right to do appraisals on your own, most states require you to become a Trainee Appraiser and obtain experience. Many states have different titles for the Trainee Appraiser license level, such as Apprentice Appraiser or Registered Appraiser. Some states do not have a formal Trainee Appraiser license level. You can learn more about your state’s requirements by going to their regulatory website. Click here to find your state.

While the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP) has always required appraisers to identify the scope of work needed to produce credible results, it became clear in recent years[when?] that appraisers did not fully understand the process for developing this adequately. In formulating the scope of work for a credible appraisal, the concept of a limited versus complete appraisal and the use of the Departure Rule caused confusion to clients, appraisers, and appraisal reviewers. In order to deal with this, USPAP was updated in 2006 with what came to be known as the Scope of Work Project. Following this, USPAP eliminated both the Departure Rule and the concept of a limited appraisal, and a new Scope of Work rule was created. In this, appraisers were to identify six key parts of the appraisal problem at the beginning of each assignment:
4. Profit method. Used for trading properties where evidence of rates is slight, such as hotels, restaurants and old-age homes. A three-year average of operating income (derived from the profit and loss or income statement) is capitalized using an appropriate yield. Note that since the variables used are inherent to the property and are not market-derived, therefore unless appropriate adjustments are made, the resulting value will be value-in-use or investment value, not market value.
The requirements to become a fully qualified appraiser or assessor of real estate are complex and vary by state and, sometimes, by the value or type of property. Most appraisers and assessors of residential or commercial property must have at least a bachelor’s degree to obtain certification. The entry-level state license category typically does not require a bachelor’s degree. Check with your state's licensing board for specific requirements for both assessors and appraisers.
The cost approach was once called the summation approach. The theory is that the value of a property can be estimated by summing the land value and the depreciated value of any improvements. The value of the improvements is often referred to by the abbreviation RCNLD (for "reproduction/replacement cost new less depreciation"). Reproduction refers to reproducing an exact replica; replacement cost refers to the cost of building a house or other improvement which has the same utility, but using modern design, workmanship and materials. In practice, appraisers almost always use replacement cost and then deduct a factor for any functional dis-utility associated with the age of the subject property. An exception to the general rule of using the replacement cost is for some insurance value appraisals. In those cases, reproduction of the exact asset after a destructive event like a fire is the goal.
The general condition of the building and grounds will also be taken into consideration. For example, the status of the foundation and the condition of the roof may require repairs and renovations. In addition to the building itself, the land that it stands on can also play a factor in the analysis. It is common for an appraiser to take photographs of the property, both inside and out in order to document its condition.
Unlike appraisers, assessors have no federal requirement for certification. In states that mandate certification for assessors, the requirements are usually similar to those for appraisers. For example, the International Association of Assessing Officers (IAAO) offers the Certified Assessment Evaluator (CAE). This designation covers topics that include property valuation for tax purposes, property tax administration, and property tax policy. Applicants are required to have a bachelor's degree prior to obtaining the designation.

There is a key distinction between the role of a real estate agent and a valuer, as an agent may advocate for its principal's interests, whereas a valuer must impartially and independently provide opinion as to value. Lawyers, Conveyancers and Real Estate Agents are permitted to act in the sale of real estate under quite different legislation from that which governs valuers. The provision for the role in relation to Lawyers and Conveyancers is the Lawyers and Conveyancers 2006.

Department is an industry leader in valuation services, counseling and advisory services. As one of the larger appraisal firms in the Tampa Bay Area, we have a depth of appraisal expertise in a wide variety of areas. We have commercial and industrial appraisers fluent in Spanish and Polish. We have extensive experience appraising properties of all sizes from the smallest retail or mixed use properties to large condominium developments or regional shopping centers. We

The proposed property tax rate, or millage rate, is set by various taxing authorities. Pinellas County is one taxing authority. There are others, such as the School Board and the individual municipalities. Based on their proposed budgets, they determine a “proposed” millage rate. One mill is equal to $1 for every $1,000 of taxable property value. Once the proposed millage rate is set, the taxing authority cannot raise it, though it is permitted to set it at a lower rate.
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