As mentioned before, an appraiser can generally choose from three approaches to determine value. One or two of these approaches will usually be most applicable, with the other approach or approaches usually being less useful. The appraiser has to think about the "scope of work", the type of value, the property itself, and the quality and quantity of data available for each approach. No overarching statement can be made that one approach or another is always better than one of the other approaches.
2. Investment method. Used for most commercial (and residential) property that is producing future cash flows through the letting of the property. If the current estimated rental value (ERV) and the passing income are known, as well as the market-determined equivalent yield, then the property value can be determined by means of a simple model. Note that this method is really a comparison method, since the main variables are determined in the market. In standard U.S. practice, however, the closely related capitalizing of NOI is confounded with the DCF method under the general classification of the income capitalization approach (see above).
This article is largely based on an article in the out-of-copyright Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, which was produced in 1911. It should be brought up to date to reflect subsequent history or scholarship (including the references, if any). When you have completed the review, replace this notice with a simple note on this article's talk page. (November 2017)

While no appraiser is infallible, his or her opinion of the value of your home is informed by rigorous training, numerous tests, several years of on-the-job experience and required continuing education. They are also required to substantiate every finding in their reports that could influence a home’s value. Appraisers and their employers (often appraisal management companies) are heavily regulated. Consequences of issuing deliberately misleading or biased reports can be severe, so appraisers work hard to remain impartial and keep personal value judgments and prejudices out of their work.
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WertV's general regulations are further supported by the Wertermittlungsrichtlinie (abbr. WertR, "directive on the determination of value").[21] The WertR provides templates for calculations, tables (e.g., economic depreciation) and guidelines for the consideration of different influences. WertV and WertR are not binding for appraisals for nonofficial use, nonetheless, they should be regarded as best practice or Generally Accepted (German) Valuation Practice (GAVP).
Most jurisdictions have an appeal process for contesting an assessment. While the specific rules vary from one locality to the next, the process typically involves a hearing before an assessment appeal board. Taxpayers who have concerns about their assessment should visit their local Assessor's Office or its website to learn about the appeal process and what information is required in order to appeal a property tax assessment.

The scope of work is the first step in any appraisal process. Without a strictly defined scope of work, an appraisal's conclusions may not be viable. By defining the scope of work, an appraiser can properly develop a value for a given property for the intended user, and for the intended use of the appraisal. The whole idea of "scope of work" is to provide clear expectations and guidelines for all parties as to what the appraisal report does, and does not, cover; and how much work has gone into it.

NOTICE: The Hillsborough County Property Appraiser’s office announces a Request for Proposals (RFP) for qualified consultants to provide high-resolution aerial photography services. The deadline for the submission of bids is Dec. 20 at 2 p.m. A pre-bid meeting for prospective bidders is scheduled for Dec. 6 at 10 a.m. at the HCPA office in Tampa. All interested firms can obtain a copy of the RFP by
Because of a terrible quirk in state law, the next Pinellas County property appraiser will be chosen only by Republicans in the Aug. 30 primary. The two candidates are Mike Twitty, a veteran appraiser in the private sector, and Jim Frishe, a former state legislator. There is no Democratic candidate, but the presence of a write-in candidate in November means only Republicans get to vote in a primary that should be open to all voters. Twitty is the clear choice.
The National Association of Appraisers (NAA) was formed with a purpose of uniting those engaged in the appraisal profession for the purpose of exerting a beneficial influence upon the profession and to advocate appraiser interests. The NAA has established an advisory group consisting of leadership at the state organizations and coalitions called the Board of Governors where those states can help guide the NAA in acting in the best interest of all appraisers. The NAA also has a designated membership, MNAA (Member of the National Association of Appraisers, who is an individual who holds an appraisal license, certification or similar appraisal credential issued by a governmental agency; and who accepts the membership requirements and objectives of the National Association of Appraisers.
In a commercial income-producing property this approach capitalizes an income stream into a value indication. This can be done using revenue multipliers or capitalization rates applied to a Net Operating Income (NOI). Usually, an NOI has been stabilized so as not to place too much weight on a very recent event. An example of this is an unleased building which, technically, has no NOI. A stabilized NOI would assume that the building is leased at a normal rate, and to usual occupancy levels. The Net Operating Income (NOI) is gross potential income (GPI), less vacancy and collection loss (= Effective Gross Income) less operating expenses (but excluding debt service, income taxes, and/or depreciation charges applied by accountants).
But, officials estimate the value of the properties would go up as a result of the improvements. They expect that the owners of the properties would pay about $11,164 more each year in taxes because of the increased property value. It’s that amount — about $62,343 in city and county taxes — that the two governments would forego as a result of Tuesday’s vote. Of that, about $62,343 would have gone to St. Petersburg and the remaining $49,301 would have gone to the county.
Once you’ve read the appraisal report and reviewed the appraiser’s supporting documents, you can challenge it if you think it is inaccurate or doesn’t take into consideration new or important data about the property or comparable homes. Most lenders review appraisals through a strict system of checks and balances that compares the appraisal report to other appraisals on all known sales in your neighborhood. This internal review system can catch discrepancies that should be investigated, but any information you can provide to your lender will help.
In order to become a Licensed Residential Appraiser, and earn the right to do appraisals on your own, most states require you to become a Trainee Appraiser and obtain experience. Many states have different titles for the Trainee Appraiser license level, such as Apprentice Appraiser or Registered Appraiser. Some states do not have a formal Trainee Appraiser license level. You can learn more about your state’s requirements by going to their regulatory website. Click here to find your state.
Although appraisers and assessors of real estate work in offices, they may spend a large part of their time conducting site visits to assess properties. Time spent away from the office depends on the specialty. For example, residential appraisers tend to spend less time on office work than commercial appraisers, who might spend up to several weeks analyzing information and writing reports on one property. Appraisers who work for banks and mortgage companies generally spend most of their time inside the office, making site visits only when necessary.
The stakes are always high when investing in real estate be it a single family residence or a specialized commercial property. That is why hiring the right real estate appraiser and analyst is critical. Fogarty & Finch has the expertise to assist you during this very challenging real estate market and the commitment to be there for you in the future.
The seller can offer to carry a second mortgage for the difference.If the buyer really wants the home but cannot come up with the difference in cash, making payments or a lump sum payment at a later date to the seller is an option. After the escrow closes, sellers often retain the right to discount the second mortgage, sell it for less than face value to an investor.
Today the API represents the interests of more than 8,600 property professionals throughout Australia. API members include residential, commercial and plant and machinery valuers, property advisers, property analysts, property fund and asset managers, property facility managers, property lawyers and property researchers and academics. The Institute’s primary role is to set and maintain the highest standards of professional practice, education, ethics and professional conduct for its members and the broader property profession.[32]
Although appraisers and assessors of real estate work in offices, they may spend a large part of their time conducting site visits to assess properties. Time spent away from the office depends on the specialty. For example, residential appraisers tend to spend less time on office work than commercial appraisers, who might spend up to several weeks analyzing information and writing reports on one property. Appraisers who work for banks and mortgage companies generally spend most of their time inside the office, making site visits only when necessary.

U.S. Regulatory and Professional Standards and Guidelines  USPAP complia​nt valuation and independent-appraisal reviews for federally regulated  banks and financial institutions, asset-based lenders, family offices, endowments and foundations, high net worth individuals, private-equity investors and managed funds and, independent appraisal review expert witness and litigation support services to attorneys and in arbitration / mediation and as umpires.
Mathematically the distinction between land and improvements in the income approach will have no impact on the overall value when the remaining economic life is more than thirty years. For this reason, it has become quite common to use the Vereinfachtes Ertragswertverfahren (simplified income approach), omitting the land value and the Liegenschaftszins. However, the separate treatment of land and buildings leads to more precise results for older buildings, especially for commercial buildings, which typically have a shorter economic life than residential buildings.
In the UK, real estate appraisal is known as property valuation and a real estate appraiser is a land valuer or property valuer (usually a qualified chartered surveyor who specializes in property valuation).[15] Property valuation in the UK is regulated by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS), a professional body encompassing all of the building and property-related professions. The RICS professional guidelines for valuers are published in what is commonly known as the Red Book. The 2011 version was the RICS Valuation Standards 7th Edition (2 May 2011), superseding an edition published in 2007 with later amendments. The RICS Valuation Standards contains mandatory rules, best practice guidance and related commentary. Changes to the standards are approved by the RICS Valuation Professional Group Board, and the Red Book is updated accordingly on a regular basis. While based in the UK, RICS is a global organization and has become very active in the United States in recent years through its affiliation with the Counselors of Real Estate, a division of the National Association of Realtors.

The final millage rate will be voted upon as part of the final budget approval in September. Each taxing authority holds a public hearing for that vote. The hearing dates and contact information are provided on the TRIM notice. The new fiscal year begins October 1 and the Pinellas County Tax Collector sends out the tax bills on or about November 1.

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